World leaders are gathering in New York ahead of Monday’s UN climate summit, when about 60 countries are expected to make new climate commitments. The biggest climate demonstrations ever took place on Friday in more than 150 countries, as multinationals also pledged to drastically cut emissions. This blog brings you the latest news from our reporters on an important week for environmental issues.
Japan’s environment minister makes emissions pledge
Japan will join a coalition committed to lowering greenhouse gas emissions, its environmental minister said, while denying that the country was blocked from speaking at the UN climate summit because of its reliance on coal-powered electricity.
Tokyo has been under fire for moving too slowly away from coal, which is a major energy source for Japan. In his first international press conference since becoming environment minister this month, Shinjiro Koizumi said Japan would join the Carbon Neutral Coalition, a group of 19 countries and 32 cities committed to lowering emissions.
Speaking to reporters in New York, he denied that Japan was not invited to speak at the summit because of his country’s coal reliance. “As far as I know Japan got an offer, but the prime minister couldn’t make it” because of scheduling conflicts, Mr Koizumi said. “For Japan, we got an offer, but the prime minister cannot come.”
The 38-year-old son of the former prime minister Junichiro Koizumi is popular in Japan and frequently leads in opinion polls as a favourite to become the country’s next leader.
Mr Koizumi said he concurred with attempts to frame combating climate change as “sexy” to make it more relevant to people. “I totally agree with that,” he said. “On tackling such a big-scale issue such as climate change, it’s got to be fun. It’s got to be cool. It’s got to be sexy too.”
Patrick Temple-West in New York
Reports warns on ‘tragic effect’ of record temperature
Scientists have issued a stark warning about the impact of rising concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, ahead of the UN climate summit in New York.
The 2015-2019 period has been the warmest five-year-period on record, and the rate of global sea level rise is also accelerating, according to a new report from the UN’s World Meteorological Association. While annual sea level rise was about 3mm per year during 1997-2006, this has sped up 5mm per year in the May 2014-summer 2019 period.
“Climate change causes and impacts are increasing rather than slowing down,” said Petteri Taalas, head of the WMO and co-chair of the science advisory group of the UN climate summit. “As we have seen this year with tragic effect in the Bahamas and Mozambique, sea level rise and intense tropical storms led to humanitarian and economic catastrophes,” he added.
Global emissions are rising and will not peak until after 2030, based on current country policies, putting the planet on course for 2.9C-3.4C of warming by the year 2100, the report warned.
As about 60 heads of state prepare to take to the stage at the UN climate summit on Monday with new climate announcements, the report — a synthesis of research from eight groups including the UN Environment Program and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change — highlighted the most dramatic changes that have already taken place on the planet.
New data on greenhouse gases showed the growth rate for carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere was 20 per cent faster during 2015-2019 than during the previous five-year period, the result of rising emissions.
In the Arctic, multiyear sea ice that stays frozen from year to year is close to disappearing, the report warned, noting that the four lowest years on record for winter sea ice extent occurred during 2015-2019. The accelerating melt of the Greenland ice sheet and global glaciers, in addition to the thermal expansion of the ocean as it gets warmer, have all contributed to a speed-up in the rate of sea level rise.
Large group of multinationals sign UN climate pact
As world leaders began gathering in New York for Monday’s UN Climate Action Summit, a group of multinational companies including Swiss Re, Danone, Ikea, Salesforce and L’Oréal pledged to drastically cut greenhouse gas emissions.
With the announcement of 59 new signatories, the UN Global Compact now has 87 companies, with a combined market cap of $2.3tn, on board with its campaign to keep global warming below 1.5 degrees centigrade. The initiative launched earlier this year with 28 companies signing up in July, including Levi Strauss, AstraZeneca and Unilever.
Companies signing on with the UNGC pledge have agreed to set independently verified “science-based” targets and create decarbonisation plans within 24 months to start bringing their emissions down to keep warming below 1.5C. Signatories also have the option to publicly commit to reaching net-zero emissions by no later than 2050.
More than 600 companies had already pledged to do their part in limiting global warming to 2C as set out in the 2016 Paris climate accord, but their progress on hitting those goals has been patchy. Only 15 per cent of the world’s largest 500 companies are on track.
Nonetheless, the rapidly rising number of companies taking action on climate change is evidence of a “massive intellectual revolution” in the world of business, said Andrew Steer, a board member at the Science Based Targets Initiative — a coalition between the UNGC and various environmental research and activist groups in charge of vetting the companies signing the pledge.
“Just five or 10 years ago, the vast majority of CEOs, boards and governments believed it would be nice to do something about climate change but it would require a trade off,” Mr Steer said. “Now, their view is that smart policies on climate change encourage more resource efficiency and [the development of] new technology . . . which can lead to more, rather than less, competitiveness.” Billy Nauman in New York
Millions of demonstrators join largest climate protest in history
Millions of demonstrators took to the streets of the world’s biggest cities on Friday for the largest climate protest in history, ahead of a UN summit at which about 60 countries are expected to make new climate commitments.
The protest movement that began last year when the teenager Greta Thunberg went on a solo “school strike” in Stockholm, has now swelled to cover more than 150 countries. Demonstrations took place in almost all the world’s big cities, from Sydney to New Delhi and Boston.
In New York, students were granted leave to participate in the protest with parental permission. Ms Thunberg has said she wants the protest to be “another tipping point” and hopes that “there will be so many people that we cannot look away any more”.
Speaking in Lower Manhattan’s Battery Park to some 250,000 people, Ms Thunberg said: “We are a wave of change. Together and united, we are unstoppable. This is what people power looks like. We will rise to the challenge. We will hold those who are most responsible for this crisis accountable. We can and we will.
“If you belong to that small group of people who feel threatened by us then we have some very bad news for you, because this is only the beginning. Change is coming whether they like it or not.”
The demonstrations come at a time of rising public concern over climate change — and a time when the climate agenda has been under threat, as trade wars and tensions in the Middle East undermine the impetus for global co-operation that was part of the Paris climate pact in 2015.
The scale of Friday’s protests could give a boost to UN secretary-general António Guterres’s efforts to get countries to fall in line with efforts that would limit the worst effects of global warming. Leslie Hook in New York
Germany unveils sweeping measures to fight climate change
The German government has unveiled sweeping measures to combat climate change in Europe’s largest economy, including the introduction of a carbon price for key sectors such as transport and a €54bn spending package to encourage companies and households to reduce their carbon emissions.
The deal — agreed on Friday after a 15-hour negotiation that lasted into the early hours — is intended to send a strong political signal ahead of next week’s UN climate summit in New York. Political leaders in Berlin hope the measures and commitments will burnish Germany’s increasingly tarnished credentials as a global leader in the fight against climate change — and bolster Angela Merkel’s environmental record in the twilight years of her chancellorship.
Ms Merkel and her colleagues hailed the agreement as a breakthrough, with environment minister Svenja Schulze describing it as a “new beginning for Germany’s climate policy”.
But there was sharp criticism from environmental groups and economists, who took aim in particular at the relatively low carbon price imposed by the government.
Under the German proposal, companies that produce and sell petrol, coal, heating oil and similar fuels will have to buy certificates to offset the carbon dioxide emissions from their products. Such a system already exists at the European level, though only for heavy industry, aviation and the energy sector. The German carbon price, however, will be significantly lower than the current EU price, at least initially — starting at €10 per tonne in 2021 and rising to €35 by 2025. Tobias Buck in Berlin
FT View: leaders have yet to grasp the enormity of the climate task
World leaders gather in New York on Monday for a UN climate change summit with little precedent. It comes amid a conspicuous shift in public sentiment that was plain to see on Friday, when vast numbers of students were joined by adults in dozens of countries worldwide in a global climate strike.
The protesters make a serious point: despite more than 30 years of international efforts to stem the greenhouse gases driving global warming, emissions have accelerated. Signs of a political response have begun to emerge in the form of climate emergency declarations and targets to cut the net emission of greenhouse gases to zero. Yet leaders are only beginning to understand the sweeping, economy-wide policies required to meet these bolder goals. They need to grasp the enormity of the climate change challenge — and put it at the centre of all policymaking.
Decades have passed since countries first began to acknowledge the need for action. At least 147 have policies to support renewable energy. More than 50 have electric car incentives. More than 40 have a price on carbon emissions.
Yet too many have also supported the continued extraction and use of fossil fuels that have helped drive the average global temperature up by about 1C since the industrial revolution. Leaders regularly make stirring speeches at climate summits. Then, like drunks at an Alcoholics Anonymous convention who vow abstinence then visit a bar on the way home, they go back and implement energy, taxation, transport and economic policies that amount to business as usual on emissions.
This must end. Fossil fuels — oil, gas and coal — have brought remarkable prosperity and underpin the livelihoods of millions of workers worldwide. The task of gradually removing them in a fair and financially sustainable manner is Herculean.
The good news is that the cost of cleaner energy sources has plummeted. Investors have been rewarded for backing companies that have started to meet a powerful consumer appetite for plant-based burgers and milk substitutes. Polls show public support for concerted action is rising in many countries. This time last year, Greta Thunberg was an obscure Swedish schoolgirl. Last week the young climate activist who inspired the global school strike movement spoke at a US congressional committee and met former US president Barack Obama. The Editorial Board