Via IMF (Den Internationale Valutafond)

Stress-Testing for the Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy







April 15, 2019















Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. It’s a pleasure to welcome you at
today’s event.

Let me thank our partners at De Nederlandsche Bank — and the Netherlands
Executive Director’s office at the IMF — for engaging with us to organize a
workshop on this crucial issue. We have had seminars on various
climate-related topics — and we will have more in the future — but this is
the first one to tackle climate-related stress-testing.

Stress-testing is nothing new for us. The IMF pioneered the use of stress
tests for assessing financial stability some 20 years ago. Stress testing
has evolved but is still very much at the core of what we do in the
Financial Sector Assessment Program. Our stress tests often capture
“physical risks” related to climate-related disasters, such as insurance
losses and nonperforming loans associated with hurricanes.

However,

stress-testing for the transition to a low-carbon economy

is a new and rapidly evolving area, and the DNB is at its forefront. I am
truly delighted to welcome DNB’s Paul Hilbers and Robert Vermeulen.
Together with their colleagues, they are enhancing the public debate on
financial stability risks posed by disruptive energy transition scenarios.
Before they present their results, let me make five points.


First: Climate change puts our planet at risk, and it confronts
humanity with an existential challenge.

  • In a 2015 speech, Mark Carney called climate change “the Tragedy of the
    Horizon.” The potentially catastrophic effects of climate change go beyond
    the typical horizons of banks, investors, and policymakers. This leads to a
    major time inconsistency between the costs borne by our generation and
    those who will follow us.
  • The latest report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    provides dire warnings. Global warming is expected to reach 1.5 to 2
    degrees Celsius between 2030 and 2045. Fundamental uncertainties suggest
    large tail risks and a severe threat of catastrophic outcomes.
    Weather-related reminders of climate disruptions appear almost daily — from
    record-setting summer heat waves to historically intense rainfalls; from
    the gradual melting of Arctic glaciers to the rise of sea levels.
  • Breaking “the Tragedy of the Horizon” requires a transition to a
    low-carbon economy. But, to quote Mark Carney: “The task is large, the
    window of opportunity is short, and the stakes are existential.” With that
    in mind, I think we need to prepare for transition scenarios that will be
    far from smooth. Abrupt changes in policies and technological breakthroughs
    may change asset valuations, triggering financial instability.
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Second: Climate change can pose financial stability risks.

  • The financial system has a crucial role in financial protection through
    insurance and other risk-sharing mechanisms to reduce the cost of disasters
    when they occur.
  • The financial system can play a role in supporting price signals to
    redirect finance toward clean technologies. But in a disruptive transition,
    financial system can exacerbate shocks through leverage and
    interconnectedness, amplifying instability.
  • Stability challenges due to climate change are a concern for
    financial-stability policymakers. he Central Banks and Supervisors Network
    for Greening the Financial System — which consists of 29 members, including
    the DNB — identified climate-related risks as a material source of
    financial risk, and called upon central banks and supervisors to ensure
    that the financial system is resilient to such risks.


Third: The DNB’s climate-related stress-testing framework is an
important step, and it needs to be taken further.

  • To better understand financial-stability impacts of climate change, we
    need new analytical approaches based on forward-looking scenario analysis.
  • The framework that our DNB colleagues will present is an important
    contribution to understanding the risks from disruptive adjustments to a
    low-carbon economy. The transition risk is one of the main channels through
    which climate change can affect financial stability, together with physical
    and liability risks.
  • Transition risk is multifaceted. Climate change and the transition to a
    low-carbon economy are subject to fundamental uncertainty. The complexity
    of climate risks leads economists and climate scientists into areas that
    are deeply challenging. The risks of a climate catastrophe have significant
    breadth, since they affect most business models, sectors, and geographies.
    They are large, potentially non-linear, and irreversible. They are only
    partly foreseeable, they depend on short-term actions, and their time
    horizon is long and uncertain.
  • A key next step will be to capture second-round effects — in which a
    decline in asset prices leads to fire sales, which further depress asset
    prices, generating a vicious cycle and an amplifying mechanism for an
    initial shock. Preliminary attempts at quantifying second-round effects
    suggest that they can be sizeable. It will be essential to fill data gaps —
    for example, on the industry classification of investment funds’ ultimate
    exposures. This leads me to the next point.

Fourth: Closing data gaps is critical.

  • The Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures set up by the FSB
    aims to support voluntary disclosure of climate-related financial risks by
    the private sector. For now, disclosures are still uneven across asset
    classes and jurisdictions. Comprehensive climate stress testing by central
    banks and supervisors would require improved provision and accessibility of
    high-quality data. Having a well-defined, internationally comparable
    taxonomy of green (and brown) assets, as well as disclosure standards,
    would incentivize market participants to reflect climate risks in prices.
  • Central banks can take a range of practical steps, for example disclosing
    their portfolio exposures to climate-related risks. There are still many
    open questions, such as whether and how to incorporate climate-related
    criteria in central banks’ portfolio management and other policies. The DNB
    and others — such as the Swiss National Bank and the Norges Bank — already
    do so to some extent. And there are broader questions, such as whether
    climate disclosures should be mandated, as was done for public companies by
    the French Energy Transition Law.

Fifth and finally: We are open to engage on these topics
. The Fund’s overall focus has been on carbon pricing and related fiscal
issues. But helping countries ensure financial stability is an important
part of what we do, and, in that context, we need to be alert to
climate-related risks. We are liaising with central banks and other
agencies, and we are working to enhance our analysis of macrofinancial
transmission of climate risks, including through stress tests.


The potential impact of climate change compels us to think through
these issues with urgency.

Let me thank our DNB colleagues for their important contribution to
climate-related stress-testing. I look forward to a rich discussion on this
vital topic.


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