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Letter to governments of the G20 nations

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Via VOX EU

The gravity and urgency of the entwined COVID-19 public health and economic crises must be reflected in an unprecedented response. In this letter world leaders, leading global health experts and economists outline what is needed. The two crises require urgent specific measures that can be agreed on with speed and at scale. Both require world leaders to commit to funding far beyond the current capacity of our existing international institutions. The economic emergency will not be resolved until the health emergency is effectively addressed: the health emergency will not end simply by conquering the disease in one country alone, but by ensuring recovery from COVID-19 in all countries.

We are writing to call for immediate internationally coordinated action – within the next few days – to address our deepening global health and economic crises from COVID-19.

The communique from the G20 Extraordinary Leaders’ Summit on March 26, 2020, recognized the gravity and urgency of the entwined public health and economic crises, but we now require urgent specific measures that can be agreed on with speed and at scale: emergency support for global health initiatives led by the World Health Organization (WHO) and emergency measures to restore the global economy. Both require world leaders to commit to funding far beyond the current capacity of our existing international institutions.

In 2008-2010, the immediate economic crisis could be surmounted when the economic fault line – under-capitalization of the global banking system – was tackled. Now, however, the economic emergency will not be resolved until the health emergency is effectively addressed: the health emergency will not end simply by conquering the disease in one country alone, but by ensuring recovery from COVID-19 in all countries.

Global health measures

All health systems – even the most sophisticated and best funded – are buckling under the pressures of the virus. Yet if we do nothing as the disease spreads in poorer African, Asian, and Latin American cities and in fragile communities which have little testing equipment, ventilators, and medical supplies; and where social distancing and even washing hands are difficult to achieve, COVID-19 will persist there and re-emerge to hit the rest of the world with further rounds that will prolong the crisis.

World leaders must immediately agree to commit $8 billion – as set out by the Global Preparedness Monitoring Board – to fill the most urgent gaps in the COVID-19 response.This includes:

  • $1 billion this year urgently needed by WHO: This would enable WHO to carry out its critically important mandate in full. While it has launched a public appeal – 200,000 individuals and organizations have generously donated more than $100 million – it cannot be expected to depend on charitable donations.
  • $3 billion for Vaccines: The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) is coordinating the global research effort to develop and scale up effective COVID-19 vaccines. In addition Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance will have an important role procuring and equitably distributing vaccines to the poorest countries and requires $7.4 billion for its replenishment: this should be fully funded.
  • $2.25 billion for Therapeutics: The COVID-19 Therapeutics Accelerator aims to deliver 100 million treatments by the end of 2020 and is seeking these funds to rapidly develop and scale-up access to therapeutics.
  • Instead of each country, or state or province within it, competing for a share of the existing capacity, with the risk of rapidly increasing prices, we should also be vastly increasing capacity by supporting the WHO in coordinating the global production and procurement of medical supplies, such as testing kits, personal protection equipment, and ITU technology to meet fully the worldwide demand. We will also need to stockpile and distribute essential equipment.

A further $35 billion will be required, as highlighted by WHO, to support countries with weaker health systems and especially vulnerable populations, including the provision of vital medical supplies, surge support to the national health workforce (70% of whom in many countries are underpaid women), and strengthening national resilience and preparedness. According to WHO, almost 30% of countries have no COVID-19 national preparedness response plans and only half have a national infection prevention and control program. Health systems in lower income countries will struggle to cope; even the most optimistic estimates from Imperial College London suggest there will be 900,000 deaths in Asia and 300,000 in Africa.

We propose the convening of a global pledging conference – its task supported by a G20 Executive Task Force – to commit resources to meeting these emergency global health needs.

Global economic measures

Much has been done by national governments to counter the downward slide of their economies. But a global economic problem requires a global economic response. Our aim should be to prevent a liquidity crisis turning into a solvency crisis, and a global recession becoming a global depression. To ensure this, better coordinated fiscal, monetary, central bank, and anti-protectionist initiatives are needed. The ambitious fiscal stimuli of some countries will be all-the-more effective if more strongly complemented by all countries in a position to do so.

  • A wider group of central banks should be given access to the arrangements for currency swaps and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) should enter into swap arrangements with the major central banks. The IMF should use those hard currency resources and establish its own swap line facility to provide emergency financial support to emerging and developing nations. But it is vital that if we are to prevent mass redundancies, the guarantees that are being given in each country are rapidly followed through by banks via on-the-ground support for companies and individuals.
  • The emerging economies – and in particular those of the poorest countries – need special help, not the least in ensuring that support reaches all those affected by the drastic decrease in economic activity. The IMF has said it will mobilize all of its available resources. There should be an additional allocation of around $500-$600 billion in Special Drawing Rights (SDRs). At the same time, to ensure sufficient funding for individual countries, we encourage IMF members to allow lending quota limits to be exceeded in countries most in need.
  • The World Bank and many of the regional development banks have recently been recapitalized, but more will be needed. It is likely that, as in 2009 when the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development’s (IBRD) spending alone went from $16 billion to $46 billion, it – and the regional development banks – will need a much larger expansion of available resources.
  • To meet its responsibilities for humanitarian aid, and for refugees and displaced people, whose plight is likely to become desperate, and for the UN Sustainable Development Goals, UN agencies have issued this week an immediate call for $2 billion of additional resources that are urgently needed.
  • The international community should waive this year’s poorer countries’ debt repayments, including $44 billion due from Africa, and consider future debt relief to allow poor countries the fiscal space to tackle the health and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. We ask the G20 to task the IMF and the World Bank to further assess the debt sustainability of affected countries.
  • We agree with African and developing country leaders that given the existential threat to their economies, the increasing disruption to livelihoods and education and their limited capacity to cushion people and companies, that at least $150 billion of overall support will be needed for health, social safety nets, and other urgent help.
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These allocations should be agreed to immediately, coordinated by a G20 Executive Task Force as part of the G20 Action Plan, and be confirmed in full at the upcoming IMF and World Bank meetings. The two core economic institutions should be given reassurances that additional bilateral funding will be forthcoming and the need for further capital injections agreed.

The longer-term solution is a radical rethink of global public health and a refashioning –together with proper resourcing – of the global health and financial architecture.

The United Nations, the governments of the G20 nations, and interested partners should work together to coordinate further action.    

Signed (a),

Bertie Ahern
Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland (1997-2008)
Montek Singh Ahluwalia
Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission of India (2004-2014)
Masood Ahmed
President of the Center for Global Development
Edmond Alphandéry
Minister of the Economy, Finances and Industry of France (1993-1995); Founder & Chairman of the Euro 50 Group
HE Dr Abdulaziz Altwaijri
Director General of the Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (1991-2019)
Giuliano Amato
Prime Minister of Italy (1992-1993; 2000-2001)
Mohamed Amersi
Founder & Chairman, The Amersi Foundation
Louise Arbour
UN Special Representative for International Migration; UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (2004-2008)
Óscar Aria
President of Costa Rica (2006-2010)¹
Shaukat Aziz
Prime Minister of Pakistan (2004-2007)²
Gordon Bajnai
Prime Minister of Hungary (2009-2010)
Jan Peter Balkenende
Prime Minister of the Netherlands (2002-2010)¹
HE Joyce Banda
President of Malawi (2012-2014)¹
Ehud Barak
Prime Minister of Israel (1999-2001)³
Nicolás Ardito Barletta
President of Panama (1984-1985)
José Manuel Barroso
Prime Minister of Portugal (2002-2004); President of the European Commission (2004-2014); Non-Executive Chairman of Goldman Sachs International¹
Kaushik Basu
President of the International Economic Association; Chief Economist of the World Bank (2012-2016)
Dr Deus Bazira
Co-Director of the Center for Global Health Practice and Impact & Associate Professor of Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center
Marek Belka MEP
Prime Minister of Poland (2004-2005); Deputy Prime Minister & Minister of Finance (2001-2002); Director of European Department, IMF (2008-2010)
Nicolas Berggruen
Chairman of the Berggruen Institute²
Professor Erik Berglöf
Director of the Institute of Global Affairs, London School of Economics; Chief Economist of the EBRD (2006-2014)
Sali Berisha
President of Albania (1992-1997); Prime Minister (2005-2013)³
Sir Tim Besley
President of the International Economic Association (2014-2017); Professor of Economics and Political Science, LSE
Carl Bildt
Prime Minister of Sweden (1991-1994); Minister for Foreign Affairs (2006-2014)¹
Valdis Birkavs
Prime Minister of Latvia (1993-1994)¹
Tony Blair
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1997-2007)
James Brendan Bolger
Prime Minister of New Zealand (1990-1997)
Kjell Magne Bondevik
Prime Minister of Norway (1997-2000; 2001-2005)¹
Patrick Bolton
Professor of Finance and Economics, Imperial College London; Professor, 
Columbia University
Lakhdar Brahimi
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Algeria (1991-1993); UN & Arab League Envoy to Syria (2012-2014); Member of The Elders
Gordon Brown
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (2007-2010)
Gro Harlem Brundtland
Prime Minister of Norway (1990-1996); Director General of the WHO (1998-2003); Member of The Elders¹
John Bruton
Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland (1994-1997)¹
Felipe Calderón
President of Mexico (2006-2012)¹
Rafael Ángel Calderón
President of Costa Rica (1990-1994)
Mauricio Cárdenas
Minister of Finance of Colombia (2012-2018); Visiting Professor, Columbia University
Fernando Henrique Cardoso
President of Brazil (1995-2002)¹
Hikmet Çetin
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkey (1991-1994)³
Laura Chinchilla
President of Costa Rica (2010-2014)¹
HE Joaquim Chissano
President of Mozambique (1986-2005)¹
Alfredo Cristiani
President of El Salvador (1989-1994)
Helen Clark
Prime Minister of New Zealand (1999-2008); UNDP Administrator (2009-2017)¹
Emil Constantinescu
President of Romania (1996-2000)³
Ertharin Cousin
Executive Director of the World Food Programme (2012-2017)
Herman De Croo
President of the Chamber of Representatives of Belgium (1999-2007)³
Mirko Cvetković
Prime Minister of Serbia (2008-2012)³
Gavyn Davies
Co-Founder & Chairman, Fulcrum Asset Management; Chief Economist & Chairman of Global Investment Dept, Goldman Sachs (1988-2001); Chairman, BBC (2001-2004)
Božidar Đelić
Deputy Prime Minister of Serbia (2007-2011)
Kemal Derviş
Minister of Economic Affairs of Turkey (2001-2002); Administrator of UNDP (2005-2009); Senior Fellow Global Economy and Development, Brookings Institute
Ruth Dreifuss
President of the Swiss Confederation (1999); Member of the Swiss Federal Council (1993-2002)
Dr Mark Dybul
Executive Director of the The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (2012-2017); Co-Director of the Center for Global Health Practice and Impact & Professor of Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center
Dr Victor J. Dzau
President of the National Academy of Medicine
Mikuláš Dzurinda
Prime Minister of Slovakia (1998-2006); Minister of Foreign Affairs (2010-2012)
Gareth Evans
Foreign Minister of Australia (1988-1996); President and CEO of International Crisis Group (2000-2009)
Professor Sir Jeremy Farrar
Director of the Wellcome Trust
Jan Fischer
Prime Minister of the Czech Republic (2009-2010); Finance Minister (2013-2014)³
Joschka Fischer
Minister of Foreign Affairs and Vice Chancellor of Germany (1998-2005)
Franco Frattini
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Italy (2002-2004; 2008-2011); European Commissioner (2004-2008)³
Chiril Gaburici
Prime Minister of Moldova (2015); Minister of Economy and Infrastructure (2018-2019)³
Ahmed Galal
Finance Minister of Egypt (2013-2014)
Nathalie de Gaulle
Chairwoman & Co-founder of NB-INOV; Founder of Under 40³
César Gaviria
President of Colombia (1990-1994); Secretary-General of the Organization of American States (1994-2004)¹
Felipe Gonzalez
Prime Minister of Spain (1982-1996)²
Dr Hamish Graham
Consultant Paediatrician & Research Fellow at the Royal Children’s Hospital and Centre for International Child Health, University of Melbourne
Bryan Grenfell OBE FRS
Kathryn Briger and Sarah Fenton Professor of Ecology and Public Affairs, Princeton University
Ameenah Gurib-Fakim
President of Mauritius (2015-2018)³
Sergei Guriev
Chief Economist of the EBRD (2016-2019); Professor of Economics, Sciences Po
Alfred Gusenbauer
Chancellor of Austria (2000-2008)¹
Lucio Gutiérrez
President of Ecuador (2003-2005)
Tarja Halonen
President of Finland (2000-2012)¹
Ricardo Hausmann
Minister of Planning of Venezuela (1992-1993); Professor at the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard
Toomas Hendrik Ilves
President of Estonia (2006-2016)
Edward C. Holmes
ARC Australian Laureate Fellow; Professor, University of Sydney
Bengt Holmström
Nobel Laureate for Economic Sciences (2016); Professor of Economics, MIT
Osvaldo Hurtado
President of Ecuador (1981-1984)¹
Mo Ibrahim
Founder of Celtel; Chairman of the Mo Ibrahim Foundation²
Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu
Secretary General of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (2004-2014)³
Dalia Itzik
Interim President of Israel (2007); President of the Knesset (2006-2009)³
Mladen Ivanić
Member of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2014-2018)³
Gjorge Ivanov
President of North Macedonia (2009-2019)³
Hina Jilani
Advocate of the Supreme Court of Pakistan; Member of The Elders
Mehdi Jomaa
Prime Minister of Tunisia (2014-2015)¹
Ivo Josipović
President of Croatia (2010-2015)³
Mats Karlsson
Vice President, External Affairs at the World Bank (1999-2011)³
Caroline Kende-Robb
Executive Director of the Africa Progress Panel (2011-2017); Secretary General of CARE International (2018-2020)
John Key
Prime Minister of New Zealand (2008-2016)
HE Jakaya Kikwete
President of Tanzania (2005-2015)
Ban Ki-Moon
UN Secretary General (2007-2016); Deputy Chair of The Elders¹
Frederik Willem de Klerk
State President of South Africa (1989-1994)
Horst Köhler
President of Germany (2004-2010)¹
Jadranka Kosor
Prime Minister of Croatia (2009-2011)³
HE John Kufuor
President of Ghana (2001-2009)
Chandrika Kumaratunga
President of Sri Lanka (1994-2005)¹
Luis Alberto Lacalle Herrera
President of Uruguay (1990-1995)¹
Ricardo Lagos
President of Chile (2000-2006); Member of the Elders¹²
Zlatko Lagumdzija
Foreign Affairs Minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2012-2015)¹
Pascal Lamy
Director-General of the World Trade Organization (2005-2013)²
Hong-Koo Lee
Prime Minister of South Korea (1994-1995)¹
Mark Leonard
Co-founder & Director of the European Council on Foreign Relations
Yves Leterme
Prime Minister of Belgium (2009-2011)¹
Enrico Letta
Prime Minister of Italy (2013-2014)
Professor Justin Yifu Lin
Chief Economist & Senior Vice-President of the World Bank (2008-2012); Dean of Institute of New Structural Economics, Peking University
Tzipi Livni
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Israel (2006-2009); Minister of Justice (2013-2014)³
Petru Lucinschi
President of Moldova (1997-2001)³
Nora Lustig
President Emeritus of the Latin American and Caribbean Economic Association; Professor of Latin American Economics, Tulane University
Graça Machel
Education & Culture Minister of Mozambique (1975-1986); Deputy Chair of The Elders
Mauricio Macri
President of Argentina (2015-2019)
Jamil Mahuad
President of Ecuador (1998-2000)
Sir John Major
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1990-1997)
Moussa Mara
Prime Minister of Mali (2014-2015)³
Giorgi Margvelashvili
President of Georgia (2013-2018)³
Paul Martin
Prime Minister of Canada (2003-2006)²
Ricardo Martinelli
President of Panama (2009-2014)
Beatrice Weder di Mauro
President, Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR); Professor of International Economics, Graduate Institute in Geneva
HE Thabo Mbeki
President of South Africa (1999-2008)¹
Péter Medgyessy
Prime Minister of Hungary (2002-2004)³
Rexhep Meidani
President of Albania (1997-2002)¹³
Stjepan Mesić
President of Croatia (2000-2010)¹³
HE Benjamin Mkapa
President of Tanzania (1995-2005)¹
Mario Monti
Prime Minister of Italy (2011-2013)²
Amre Moussa
Secretary General of the Arab League (2001-2011); Minister of Foreign Affairs of Egypt (1991-2001)³
Joseph Muscat
Prime Minister of Malta (2013-2020)³
Dawn Nakagawa
Executive Vice President, Berggruen Institute
Andrew Natsios
Executive Professor, Bush School of Government & Public Service; Administrator of USAID (2001-2006)
Bujar Nishani
President of Albania (2012-2017)³
Gustavo Noboa
President of Ecuador (2000-2003)
Chief Olusegun Obasanjo
President of Nigeria (1999-2007)
Dr Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala
Board Chair of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation; Finance Minister of Nigeria (2011-2015)
Lord Jim O’Neill
Chair of Chatham House
Djoomart Otorbayev
Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan (2014-2015)³
Roza Otunbayeva
President of Kyrgyzstan (2010-2011)¹
Leif Pagrotsky
Minister of Industry and Trade & Minister of Culture and Education of Sweden (1996-2006)
Ana Palacio
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Spain (2002-2004)³
Sir Geoffrey Palmer
Prime Minister of New Zealand (1989-90); Chair of the New Zealand Law Commission (2005-2010)
George Papandreou
Prime Minister of Greece (2009-2011)³
Andrés Pastrana
President of Colombia (1998-2002)¹
J. Patterson
Prime Minister of Jamaica (1992-2005)¹
Sir Christopher Pissarides
Nobel Laureate for Economic Sciences (2010); Professor of Economics & Political Science, LSE
Romano Prodi
Prime Minister of Italy (2006-2008); President of the European Commission (1999-2004)
Jan Pronk
Minister for Development Cooperation, The Netherlands (1989-1998); Professor Emeritus at the International Institute of Social Studies, The Hague
Jorge Quiroga
President of Bolivia (2001-2002)¹
Zeid Raad al Hussein
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (2014-2018); Member of the Elders
Iveta Radičová
Prime Minister of Slovakia (2010-2012)¹
Jose Ramos Horta
President of East Timor (2007-2012)¹
Òscar Ribas Reig
Prime Minister of Andorra (1990-1994)¹
Mary Robinson
President of Ireland (19990-1997); UN High Commissioner for Human Rights; Chair of the Elders¹
Miguel Ángel Rodríguez
President of Costa Rica (1998-2002)
Dani Rodrik
President-Elect of the International Economic Association; Professor of International Political Economy, Harvard University
Petre Roman
Prime Minister of Romania (1989-1991)¹
Kevin Rudd
Prime Minister of Australia (2007-2010; 2013)²
Jorge Sampaio
President of Portugal (1996-2006)¹
Julio Maria Sanguinetti
President of Uruguay (1985-1990; 1995-2000)¹
Juan Manuel Santos
President of Colombia (2010-2018); Nobel Peace Prize Laureate (2016); Member of The Elders
Kailash Satyarthi
Nobel Peace Prize Laureate (2014); Founder of Bachpan Bachao Andolan, Global March Against Child Labour & Global Campaign for Education
Wolfgang Schüssel
Chancellor of Austria (2000-2007)
Ismail Serageldin
Vice President of the World Bank (1992-2000); Co-Chair of NGIC
Professor John Sexton
President Emeritus, New York University; President (2002-2015); Dean, NYU School of Law (1988-2002)
Dame Jenny Shipley
Prime Minister of New Zealand (1997-1999)¹
HE Ellen Johnson Sirleaf
President of Liberia (2006-2018); Member of The Elders
Javier Solana
Secretary General of the Council of the EU (1999-2009); Secretary General of NATO (1995-1999)¹
George Soros
Founder & Chair of the Open Society Foundations
Michael Spence
Nobel Laureate for Economic Sciences (2001); William R. Berkley Professor in Economics & Business, NYU²
Devi Sridhar
Professor of Global Public Health, University of Edinburgh
Lord Nicholas Stern
Chief Economist & Senior Vice-President of the World Bank (2000-2003); Chief Economist of the EBRD (1994-1999) & Professor of Economics and Government, LSE
Joseph Stiglitz
Chief Economist of the World Bank (1997-2000); Nobel Laureate for Economic Sciences (2001); Professor, Columbia University²
Petar Stoyanov
President of Bulgaria (1997-2002)³
Laimdota Straujuma
Prime Minister of Latvia (2014-2016)³
Federico Sturzenegger
President of the Central Bank of Argentina (2015-2018); Professor, Universidad de San Andrés
Hanna Suchocka
Prime Minister of Poland (1992-1993)¹
Lawrence Summers
United States Secretary of the Treasury (1999-2001); Deputy Secretary of the Treasury (1995-1999); Chief Economist of the World Bank (1991-1993); Director of the National Economic Council (2009-2010)²
Boris Tadić
President of Serbia (2004-2012)³
Ernst-Ludwig von Thadden
President, Mannheim University (2012-2019); Professor, Economics Department
Jigme Y. Thinley
Prime Minister of Bhutan (2008-2013)¹
Helle Thorning-Schmidt
Prime Minister of Denmark (2011-2015)²
Eka Tkeshelashvili
Deputy Prime Minister of Georgia (2010-2012)³
Jean-Claude Trichet
President of the European Central Bank (2003-2011); Governor of the Bank of France (1993-2003)
Danilo Türk
President of Slovenia (2007-2012); President of WLA Club de Madrid
Cassam Uteem
President of Mauritius (1992-2002)¹
Andrés Velasco
Finance Minister of Chile (2006-2010); Dean of the School of Public Policy, LSE
Guy Verhofstadt
Prime Minister of Belgium (1999–2008)
Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga
President of Latvia (1999-2007)³
Leonard Wantchekon
Founder & President of the African School of Economics; Professor of Politics and International Affairs, Princeton University
Shang-Jin Wei
Chief Economist of the Asian Development Bank (2014-2016); Professor of Chinese Business and Economy & Finance and Economics, Columbia Business School
Dr Rowan Williams
Archbishop of Canterbury (2002-2012); Chair of Christian Aid
James Wolfensohn
President of the World Bank (1995-2005)
George Yeo
Minister for Foreign Affairs of Singapore (2004-2011)²
Malala Yousafzai
Nobel Peace Prize Laureate (2014)
Kateryna Yushchenko
First Lady of Ukraine (2005-2010)³
Viktor Yushchenko
President of Ukraine (2005-2010)³
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero
Prime Minister of Spain (2004-2011)
Valdis Zatlers
President of Latvia (2007-2011)³
Ernesto Zedillo
President of Mexico (1994-2000); Member of The Elders¹²
Min Zhu
Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (2011-2016)²
ActionAid UK
Girish Menon, CEO
African Center for Economic Transformation (ACET)
Dr K.Y. Amoako, President and Founder
Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA)
Dr Agnes Kalibata, President
CARE International UK
Laurie Lee, CEO
Catholic Agency for Oversees Development (CAFOD)
Christine Allen, Director
Christian Aid
Amanda Mukwashi, CEO
Oxfam
Dr Danny Sriskandarajah, CEO
Save the Children International
Inger Ashing, CEO
Save the Children UK
Kevin Watkins, CEO
Theirworld
Dr Justin van Fleet, President
WaterAid UK
Tim Wainwright, CEO

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(a) We are also grateful for the support from:

Dr Abiy Ahmed – Prime Minister of Ethiopia
HE Julius Maada Bio – President of Sierra Leone
Sheikh Hasina – Prime Minister of Bangladesh
Ken Ofori-Atta – Finance Minister of Ghana and Chair of the World Bank Development Committee

Notes
¹ Member of WLA Club de Madrid
² Member of the Berggruen Institute 21st Century Council
³ Member of Nizami Ganjavi International Center (NGIC)


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